A machine with a series of rolls (boles) of which, each adjacent pair turns in opposite directions. The machine is used to produce film, sheeting, coated substrates or laminates with thicknesses determined by adjustment of the gap between the last pair of heated rolls.

Classes of protection

Luminaires are divided into three classes of protection according to the protective measures taken against electric shock:

Class I: Luminaires for connection to the line-side PE conductor. The symbol is shown at the point of connection.

Class II: Luminaires with additional or increased insulation. They have no PE conductor terminal.

Class III: Luminaires operated on protective extra-low voltages.

Clean room luminaires

Low air particulate loading, high cleanness and hygiene standards – these are prime requirements for both clean rooms and the luminaires used in them. Generally protected to IP 65, clean room luminaires are used in operating theatres, pharmaceutical and food production plants, microelectronic manufacturing facilities and DP systems rooms. Lamps: three-band fluorescent or compact fluorescent lamps.

Colour temperature

Colour temperature in Kelvin (K) determines the light colour of a lamp. Normal commercial lamps have colour temperatures ranging from less than 3,300 Kelvin (warm white) through 3,300 to 5,300 Kelvin (neutral white) to over 5,300 Kelvin (daylight white).

The colour temperature of a light source is determined by comparison with a "black-body radiator". This is an "idealised" solid body – e.g. made of platinum – that absorbs all light that falls on it and thus has a reflective radiance of zero.

Compound (moulding compound)

An intimate mixture of a polymer or several polymers with other ingredients such as fillers, plasticisers, pigments and other additives through extrusion (compounding) to improve and change property values. These moulding compounds are processed thermoplastically, e.g. by injection-moulding or extrusion.

CE symbol

The CE symbol is not a safety test symbol like the VDE-, ENEC or GS symbols. It is used by manufacturers on their own responsibility - applied to product or packaging - and acts as a signal to the authorities responsible for monitoring certain European Union directives. So a product displaying only the CE symbol has not been tested by a recognised testing agency.